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中华人民共和国侵权责任法(双语版)
作者:龚玲来源:找法网日期:2019-04-30

本文转载west law供学习


Tort Liability Law of the People's Republic of China 

颁布机关: 全国人民代表大会常务委员会
Promulgating Institution: Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
   
   
文      号: 中华人民共和国主席令第二十一号
Document Number: Order of the President of the People's Republic of China No. 21
   
颁布时间:
Promulgating Date: 12/26/2009
12/26/2009
实施时间:
Effective Date: 07/01/2010
07/01/2010
效力状态:
Validity Status: 有效
Valid


中华人民共和国主席令
    第二十一号
        《中华人民共和国侵权责任法》已由中华人民共和国第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十二次会议于2009年12月26日通过,现予公布,自2010年7月1日起施行。
中华人民共和国主席   胡锦涛
2009年12月26日
    Order of the President of the People's Republic of China
    No. 21
The Tort Liability Law of the People's Republic of China, adopted at the 12th Session of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress on December 26, 2009, is hereby promulgated and shall go into effect as of July 1, 2010.
Hu Jintao
President of the People's Republic of China
    December 26, 2009

中华人民共和国侵权责任法
    Tort Liability Law of the People's Republic of China 

(2009年12月26日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十二次会议通过)
  (Adopted at the 12th Session of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People's Congress on December 26, 2009)

        目录                                                      Contents
   
       第一章  一般规定                                Chapter I General Provisions
       第二章  责任构成和责任方式            Chapter II Constitution and Mode of Liability
       第三章  不承担责任和减轻责任的情形   Chapter III Non-liability and Mitigation of Liability
       第四章  关于责任主体的特殊规定    Chapter IV Special Provisions on the Subject of Liability
       第五章  产品责任                              Chapter V Product Liability
       第六章  机动车交通事故责任         Chapter VI Motor Vehicle Accident Liability
       第七章  医疗损害责任                      Chapter VII Medical Damage Liability  
        第八章  环境污染责任                      Chapter VIII Environmental Pollution Liability
       第九章  高度危险责任                       Chapter IX High Risk Liability
  
        第十章  饲养动物损害责任            Chapter X Liability for Damage Caused by Domestic Animals
       第十一章  物件损害责任                 Chapter XI Liability for Damage Caused by Objects
       第十二章  附则                               chapter XII Supplementary Provisions

第一章  一般规定
Chapter I General Provisions

         第一条   为保护民事主体的合法权益,明确侵权责任,预防并制裁侵权行为,促进社会和谐稳定,制定本法。
        Article 1    This Law is formulated for the purposes of protecting the legal rights and interests of civil subjects, defining tort liability, preventing and sanctioning tortious acts,and promoting social harmony and stability.

         第二条   侵害民事权益,应当依照本法承担侵权责任。
        本法所称民事权益,包括生命权、健康权、姓名权、名誉权、荣誉权、肖像权、隐私权、婚姻自主权、监护权、所有权、用益物权、担保物权、著作权、专利权、商标专用权、发现权、股权、继承权等人身、财产权益。
        Article 2    Tort liability shall be assumed according to this Law for any infringement of civil rights.
    For the purpose of this Law, "civil rights and interests" refer to personal and property rights, including, inter alia, the right to life, right to health, right of name, right of reputation, right of honor, portraiture right, right to privacy, autonomy in marriage, guardianship, ownership, usufruct, security interest in property, copyright, patent, right to exclusive use of trademarks, right of discovery, equity interest and right of inheritance.
     

        第三条   被侵权人有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。
        Article 3   The infringee shall be entitled to seek tort liability against the tortfeasor.

         第四条   侵权人因同一行为应当承担行政责任或者刑事责任的,不影响依法承担侵权责任。
        因同一行为应当承担侵权责任和行政责任、刑事责任,侵权人的财产不足以支付的,先承担侵权责任。
        Article 4    Tort liability to be assumed by the tortfeasor shall not be affected by his or her administrative or criminal liability for the same act.
    In the event that the property of the tortfeasor is insufficient to pay for his or her tort liability and administrative or criminal liability for the same act, he or she shall first and foremost assume the tort liability.
     

        第五条   其他法律对侵权责任另有特别规定的,依照其规定。
        Article 5    The special provisions on tort liability by other laws shall be abided accordingly.

      第二章  责任构成和责任方式
    Chapter II Constitution and Mode of Liability 

        第六条   行为人因过错侵害他人民事权益,应当承担侵权责任。
        根据法律规定推定行为人有过错,行为人不能证明自己没有过错的,应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 6    The actor infringing upon civil rights and interests of others by fault shall assume tort liability .
    If the actor presumed to be at fault according to law is unable to prove otherwise, he or she shall assume tort liability.
     

        第七条   行为人损害他人民事权益,不论行为人有无过错,法律规定应当承担侵权责任的,依照其规定。
        Article 7    If an actor infringes upon the civil rights and interests of others, and shall bear tort liability according to legal provisions regardless of whether he or she is at fault, such provisions shall prevail.

         第八条   二人以上共同实施侵权行为,造成他人损害的,应当承担连带责任。
        Article 8    If two or more persons jointly commit a tortious act which results in damage to others, they shall bear joint and several liability.

         第九条   教唆、帮助他人实施侵权行为的,应当与行为人承担连带责任。
        教唆、帮助无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人实施侵权行为的,应当承担侵权责任;该无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人的监护人未尽到监护责任的,应当承担相应的责任。
        Article 9    A person who aids or abets another person to commit a tortious act shall bear joint and several liability with the actor.
    A person who aids and abets another person with no or limited capacity for civil act to commit a tortious act shall be liable for the tort; where the guardian of a person with no or limited capacity for civil act fails to perform the guardianship responsibilities, he or she shall assume corresponding liability.
     

        第十条   二人以上实施危及他人人身、财产安全的行为,其中一人或者数人的行为造成他人损害,能够确定具体侵权人的,由侵权人承担责任;不能确定具体侵权人的,行为人承担连带责任。
        Article 10   If two or more persons commit acts to endanger the personal and property safety of others, and the act of one or more members in the said group results in damage to others, the tortfeasor(s) shall assume tort liability provided that they can be determined. Otherwise, the actors shall bear joint and several liability.

         第十一条   二人以上分别实施侵权行为造成同一损害,每个人的侵权行为都足以造成全部损害的,行为人承担连带责任。
        Article 11    If the tortious acts separately committed by two or more persons cause the same damage and the tortious act by each person is sufficient to cause the full extent of damage, the actors shall bear joint and several liability.

         第十二条   二人以上分别实施侵权行为造成同一损害,能够确定责任大小的,各自承担相应的责任;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担赔偿责任。
        Article 12    If the tortious acts separately committed by two or more persons result in the same damage and their respective liabilities can be determined, the actors shall assume liability correspondingly. If their respective liabilities cannot be determined, the actors shall assume equal liability.

         第十三条   法律规定承担连带责任的,被侵权人有权请求部分或者全部连带责任人承担责任。
        Article 13    If tortfeasors bear joint and several liability in accordance with the law, the infringee shall be entitled to request all or any of the jointly and severally liable parties to assume the liability.

         第十四条   连带责任人根据各自责任大小确定相应的赔偿数额;难以确定责任大小的,平均承担赔偿责任。
        支付超出自己赔偿数额的连带责任人,有权向其他连带责任人追偿。
        Article 14   The amount of compensation to be incurred by the jointly and severally liable parties shall be determined according to their respective liabilities. If the degree of their respective liabilities cannot be determined, the liability for compensation shall be borne equally.
    If the compensation made by a jointly and severally liable party exceeds the rightful amount due from him or her, this party shall be entitled to claim reimbursement from other parties subject to joint and several liability.
     

        第十五条   承担侵权责任的方式主要有:
        (一)停止侵害;
        (二)排除妨碍;
        (三)消除危险;
        (四)返还财产;
        (五)恢复原状;
        (六)赔偿损失;
        (七)赔礼道歉;
        (八)消除影响、恢复名誉。
        以上承担侵权责任的方式,可以单独适用,也可以合并适用。
        Article 15    Tort liability is mainly assumed through:
    (1) cessation of the infringement;
    (2) removal of obstacle;
    (3) elimination of danger;
    (4) restitution of property;
    (5) restoration to the original state;
    (6) compensation for loss;
    (7) formal apology; and
    (8) elimination of adverse impact and the restoration of reputation.
    The above can apply separately or jointly.
     

        第十六条   侵害他人造成人身损害的,应当赔偿医疗费、护理费、交通费等为治疗和康复支出的合理费用,以及因误工减少的收入。造成残疾的,还应当赔偿残疾生活辅助具费和残疾赔偿金。造成死亡的,还应当赔偿丧葬费和死亡赔偿金。
        Article 16    In the event of tort resulting in another's personal injury, compensation in the form of, inter alia, medical, nursing and transportation expenses shall be made as reasonable payments for treatment and rehabilitation expenses and for income loss from work delays. In the event of tort resulting in disability, further compensation shall be made in the form of expenses for auxiliary appliances for living and disability compensation. In the event of tort resulting in death, further compensation shall be made in the form of funeral expenses and death compensation.

         第十七条   因同一侵权行为造成多人死亡的,可以以相同数额确定死亡赔偿金。
        Article 17    In the event of multiple deaths caused by the same tortious act, death compensations of equal amount may be determined.

         第十八条   被侵权人死亡的,其近亲属有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。被侵权人为单位,该单位分立、合并的,承继权利的单位有权请求侵权人承担侵权责任。
        被侵权人死亡的,支付被侵权人医疗费、丧葬费等合理费用的人有权请求侵权人赔偿费用,但侵权人已支付该费用的除外。
        Article 18   In the event of death of the infringee, his or her immediate relatives shall be entitled to request that the tortfeasor assume tort liability. If the infringee is an entity which has been divided or merged, the entity with inheritance rights thereto shall be entitled to request that the tortfeasor assume tort liability.
    In the event of death of the infringee, the person paying reasonable expenses to the infringee in the form of, inter alia, medical fees and funeral expenses shall be entitled to seek compensation from the tortfeasor, unless such expenses have been paid by the tortfeasor.
     

        第十九条   侵害他人财产的,财产损失按照损失发生时的市场价格或者其他方式计算。
        Article 19    For the infringement of property, property loss or damage shall be calculated based on the market price at the time of loss or damage or other methods.

         第二十条   侵害他人人身权益造成财产损失的,按照被侵权人因此受到的损失赔偿;被侵权人的损失难以确定,侵权人因此获得利益的,按照其获得的利益赔偿;侵权人因此获得的利益难以确定,被侵权人和侵权人就赔偿数额协商不一致,向人民法院提起诉讼的,由人民法院根据实际情况确定赔偿数额。
        Article 20    Where the infringement on personal rights and interests results in property loss, the compensation shall be made according to the loss suffered by the infringee.. If such loss is indeterminable and the tortfeasor gains from the tort, he or she shall make compensation according to such gains; if such gains are indeterminable and the infringee and tortfeasor fail to reach an agreement on the amount of compensation, either of them may file a lawsuit with the people's court and the court shall determine the amount of compensation based on the actual situation.

         第二十一条   侵权行为危及他人人身、财产安全的,被侵权人可以请求侵权人承担停止侵害、排除妨碍、消除危险等侵权责任。
        Article 21    For tortious acts that endanger personal and property safety of others, the infringee may seek that the tortfeasor assume tort liability through, inter alia, the cessation of infringement, removal of obstacle and elimination of danger.

         第二十二条   侵害他人人身权益,造成他人严重精神损害的,被侵权人可以请求精神损害赔偿。
        Article 22   For tortious acts that infringe on personal rights and interests and resulting in serious mental damage, the infringee may seek compensation for mental damage.

         第二十三条   因防止、制止他人民事权益被侵害而使自己受到损害的,由侵权人承担责任。侵权人逃逸或者无力承担责任,被侵权人请求补偿的,受益人应当给予适当补偿。
        Article 23    If a person suffers damages in the course of preventing or deterring the infringement of civil rights, the tortfeasor shall be liable. If the tortfeasor flees or is in no capacity to assume liability and the infringee seeks compensation, the beneficiary shall make suitable compensation.

         第二十四条   受害人和行为人对损害的发生都没有过错的,可以根据实际情况,由双方分担损失。
        Article 24    If the damage is through no fault of both the victim and the tortfeasor, the loss may be borne by both parties according to the actual circumstance.

         第二十五条   损害发生后,当事人可以协商赔偿费用的支付方式。协商不一致的,赔偿费用应当一次性支付;一次性支付确有困难的,可以分期支付,但应当提供相应的担保。
        Article 25    Upon the occurrence of damage, the parties concerned may negotiate the payment method with respect to compensation. If they fail to reach an agreement, the compensation shall be paid in a lump sum. If there is genuine difficulty in making a lump sum payment, the compensation may be made in installments provided that the corresponding security is given.

      第三章  不承担责任和减轻责任的情形
    Chapter III Non-liability and Mitigation of Liability 

        第二十六条   被侵权人对损害的发生也有过错的,可以减轻侵权人的责任。
        Article 26    The liability of the tortfeasor may be mitigated if the infringee is also at fault for the damage.

         第二十七条   损害是因受害人故意造成的,行为人不承担责任。
        Article 27    The tortfeasor shall not be liable for any damage caused by the intentional act of the victim.

         第二十八条   损害是因第三人造成的,第三人应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 28    For damage caused by a third party, the said party shall assume tort liability.

         第二十九条   因不可抗力造成他人损害的,不承担责任。法律另有规定的,依照其规定。
        Article 29    No liability shall arise for damages caused by force majeure. If the law otherwise provides, such provisions shall prevail.

         第三十条   因正当防卫造成损害的,不承担责任。正当防卫超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,正当防卫人应当承担适当的责任。
        Article 30    No liability shall arise for damages caused by justifiable defense. The person acts in justifiable defense shall assume appropriate liability for undue damages caused by justifiable defense that exceeds necessary extent.

         第三十一条   因紧急避险造成损害的,由引起险情发生的人承担责任。如果危险是由自然原因引起的,紧急避险人不承担责任或者给予适当补偿。紧急避险采取措施不当或者超过必要的限度,造成不应有的损害的,紧急避险人应当承担适当的责任。
        Article 31    For damages arising from emergency avoidance, the person giving rise to such danger shall be liable. If such danger arises from natural factors, the person who undertakes emergency avoidance shall not be liable or make any compensation therefor. The person who undertakes emergency avoidance shall assume appropriate liability if inappropriate measures are taken for such avoidance or if the measures taken exceed what is necessary, resulting in undue damages.

      第四章  关于责任主体的特殊规定
    Chapter IV Special Provisions on the Subject of Liability 

        第三十二条   无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人造成他人损害的,由监护人承担侵权责任。监护人尽到监护责任的,可以减轻其侵权责任。
        有财产的无民事行为能力人、限制民事行为能力人造成他人损害的,从本人财产中支付赔偿费用。不足部分,由监护人赔偿。
         Article 32    For damages caused by a person with no or limited capacity for civil act, his or her guardian shall assume tort liability. The tort liability of guardians may be mitigated if they have fulfilled their guardianship responsibilities.
    For damages caused by a person with no or limited capacity for civil act, if the person possesses any property, compensation shall be made from the said property. Any shortfall in compensation shall be supplemented by his or her guardian.
     

        第三十三条   完全民事行为能力人对自己的行为暂时没有意识或者失去控制造成他人损害有过错的,应当承担侵权责任;没有过错的,根据行为人的经济状况对受害人适当补偿。
        完全民事行为能力人因醉酒、滥用麻醉药品或者精神药品对自己的行为暂时没有意识或者失去控制造成他人损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 33    If a person with full capacity for civil act causes damage from a temporary loss of consciousness or control through his or her fault, such a person shall assume tort liability. If there is no fault, the victim shall be appropriately compensated by the tortfeasor according to the tortfeasor's economic status.
    If a person with full capacity for civil act causes damage from a temporary loss of consciousness or control due to drinking or abuse of narcotic or psychotropic substances, such a person shall assume tort liability.
     

        第三十四条   用人单位的工作人员因执行工作任务造成他人损害的,由用人单位承担侵权责任。
        劳务派遣期间,被派遣的工作人员因执行工作任务造成他人损害的,由接受劳务派遣的用工单位承担侵权责任;劳务派遣单位有过错的,承担相应的补充责任。
        Article 34    If an employee causes damage to others due to performance of a task, the employer shall assume tort liability.
    During the period of labor dispatch, if the employee dispatched causes damage to others due to performance of a task, the entity accepting the dispatched labor shall assume tort liability. If the dispatching entity is at fault, it shall assume the corresponding supplementary liability.
     

        第三十五条   个人之间形成劳务关系,提供劳务一方因劳务造成他人损害的,由接受劳务一方承担侵权责任。提供劳务一方因劳务自己受到损害的,根据双方各自的过错承担相应的责任。
        Article 35     For individuals with labor relations, if the party providing labor causes damage to others due to his or her labor provided, the party receiving such labor service shall assume tort liability. If the party providing labor suffers damage due to his/her labor, either party shall assume liability according to his or her own wrongdoing.

         第三十六条   网络用户、网络服务提供者利用网络侵害他人民事权益的,应当承担侵权责任。
        网络用户利用网络服务实施侵权行为的,被侵权人有权通知网络服务提供者采取删除、屏蔽、断开链接等必要措施。网络服务提供者接到通知后未及时采取必要措施的,对损害的扩大部分与该网络用户承担连带责任。
        网络服务提供者知道网络用户利用其网络服务侵害他人民事权益,未采取必要措施的,与该网络用户承担连带责任。
        Article 36    The internet users and internet service providers shall assume tort liability if they utilize the internet to infringe upon civil rights and interests of others.
    If an internet user commits tortious acts through internet services, the infringee shall be entitled to inform the internet service provider to take necessary measures, including, inter alia, deletion, blocking and unlinking. If the internet service provider fails to take necessary measures in a timely manner upon notification, it shall be jointly and severally liable with the said internet user for the extended damage. 
   If an internet service provider is aware that an internet user is infringing on the civil rights and interests of others through its internet services and fails to take necessary measures, it shall be jointly and severally liable with the said internet user for such infringement.
     

        第三十七条   宾馆、商场、银行、车站、娱乐场所等公共场所的管理人或者群众性活动的组织者,未尽到安全保障义务,造成他人损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
        因第三人的行为造成他人损害的,由第三人承担侵权责任;管理人或者组织者未尽到安全保障义务的,承担相应的补充责任。
        Article 37    Managers of public places, including, inter alia, hotels, shopping malls, banks, railway stations and places of entertainment, and organizers of mass activities shall bear tort liability for damages to others arising from their failure to fulfill security obligations.
         If the act of a third party results in damage to others, the said third party shall bear tort liability and the manager or organizer shall bear the corresponding supplementary liability.
     

        第三十八条   无民事行为能力人在幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构学习、生活期间受到人身损害的,幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构应当承担责任,但能够证明尽到教育、管理职责的,不承担责任。
        Article 38    For personal injury suffered by a person with no capacity for civil act during the course of studying or living in a kindergarten, school or other education institutions, the kindergarten, school or education institution shall be liable unless it can prove the fulfillment of its education and management responsibilities.

         第三十九条   限制民事行为能力人在学校或者其他教育机构学习、生活期间受到人身损害,学校或者其他教育机构未尽到教育、管理职责的,应当承担责任。
        Article 39    For personal injury suffered by a person with limited capacity for civil act during the course of studying or living in a school or other education institutions, the school or education institution shall be liable in the case of failure to fulfill its education and management responsibilities.

         第四十条   无民事行为能力人或者限制民事行为能力人在幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构学习、生活期间,受到幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构以外的人员人身损害的,由侵权人承担侵权责任;幼儿园、学校或者其他教育机构未尽到管理职责的,承担相应的补充责任。
        Article 40    If personal injury is inflicted on a person with no or limited capacity for civil act during the course of studying or living in a kindergarten, school or other education institutions by persons other than personnel of the kindergarten, school or education institution, the tortfeasor shall bear the tort liability therefor; the kindergarten, school or education institution shall bear supplementary liability in the case of failure to fulfill its management responsibilities.

      第五章  产品责任
    Chapter V Product Liability 

        第四十一条   因产品存在缺陷造成他人损害的,生产者应当承担侵权责任。
         Article 41    A manufacturer shall bear tort liability if its product causes damage to others due to a defect.

         第四十二条   因销售者的过错使产品存在缺陷,造成他人损害的,销售者应当承担侵权责任。
        销售者不能指明缺陷产品的生产者也不能指明缺陷产品的供货者的,销售者应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 42    If a product is defective through the fault of the seller and results in damage to others, the seller shall bear tort liability.
    If the seller fails to name the manufacturer or supplier of the defective product, the seller shall bear tort liability.
     

        第四十三条   因产品存在缺陷造成损害的,被侵权人可以向产品的生产者请求赔偿,也可以向产品的销售者请求赔偿。
        产品缺陷由生产者造成的,销售者赔偿后,有权向生产者追偿。
        因销售者的过错使产品存在缺陷的,生产者赔偿后,有权向销售者追偿。
        Article 43    In the event of damage arising from a defective product, the infringee may seek compensation from either the manufacturer or seller of the said product.
    If the product defect is caused by the manufacturer, the seller shall be entitled to seek reimbursement from the manufacturer upon compensation.
    If the product defect is caused through the fault of the seller, the manufacturer shall be entitled to seek reimbursement from the seller upon compensation.
     

        第四十四条   因运输者、仓储者等第三人的过错使产品存在缺陷,造成他人损害的,产品的生产者、销售者赔偿后,有权向第三人追偿。
        Article 44    If a product defect is caused through the fault of a third party, including, inter alia, the transporter or the party providing storage, and results in damage to others, the manufacturer or seller of the said product shall be entitled to seek reimbursement from the third party upon compensation.

         第四十五条   因产品缺陷危及他人人身、财产安全的,被侵权人有权请求生产者、销售者承担排除妨碍、消除危险等侵权责任。
        Article 45    If a defective product endangers the personal or property safety of others, the infringee shall be entitle to request that the manufacturer or seller assume tort liability through, inter alia, removal of obstacle and elimination of danger.

         第四十六条   产品投入流通后发现存在缺陷的,生产者、销售者应当及时采取警示、召回等补救措施。未及时采取补救措施或者补救措施不力造成损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 46    If a defect is found in a product after it has been put into circulation, the manufacturer and the seller shall take remedial measures in a timely manner including, inter alia, alerts and recalls. In the event of damage arising from a failure to take remedial measures in a timely manner or inadequate remedial measures, they shall bear tort liability.

         第四十七条   明知产品存在缺陷仍然生产、销售,造成他人死亡或者健康严重损害的,被侵权人有权请求相应的惩罚性赔偿。
        Article 47    In the event of death or serious damage to health arising from a product that is manufactured or sold when it is known to be defective, the infringee shall be entitled to claim corresponding punitive compensation.

      第六章  机动车交通事故责任
    Chapter VI Motor Vehicle Accident Liability 

        第四十八条   机动车发生交通事故造成损害的,依照道路交通安全法的有关规定承担赔偿责任。
        Article 48   Compensation liability shall be assumed for damages arising from traffic accidents involving motor vehicles according to the relevant provisions of the Law on Road Traffic Safety.

         第四十九条   因租赁、借用等情形机动车所有人与使用人不是同一人时,发生交通事故后属于该机动车一方责任的,由保险公司在机动车强制保险责任限额范围内予以赔偿。不足部分,由机动车使用人承担赔偿责任;机动车所有人对损害的发生有过错的,承担相应的赔偿责任。
        Article 49    Where the owner of a motor vehicle is not identical with the user thereof due to vehicle leasing, lending, etc., the insurance company shall make compensation within the limits of compulsory motor vehicle insurance liability for any traffic accident that the motor vehicle party is accountable for. The user of the motor vehicle shall be liable for any shortfall in compensation. If the owner of the motor vehicle is at fault for the damage, he or she shall bear the corresponding compensation liability.

         第五十条   当事人之间已经以买卖等方式转让并交付机动车但未办理所有权转移登记,发生交通事故后属于该机动车一方责任的,由保险公司在机动车强制保险责任限额范围内予以赔偿。不足部分,由受让人承担赔偿责任。
        Article 50     If a motor vehicle is involved in a traffic accident after the parties concerned have transferred and delivered between themselves the said vehicle through, inter alia, a sale and purchase transaction, but the transfer in ownership has not yet to be registered, the insurance company shall make compensation within the limits of compulsory motor vehicle insurance liability if the motor vehicle party is accountable for the accident. The assignee shall be liable for any shortfall in compensation.

         第五十一条   以买卖等方式转让拼装或者已达到报废标准的机动车,发生交通事故造成损害的,由转让人和受让人承担连带责任。
        Article 51     If an assembled vehicle or a vehicle meeting the scrapping standards is transferred through, inter alia, a sale and purchase transaction, the assignor and the assignee shall be jointly and severally liable for any damage arising from a traffic accident caused by the said vehicle.

         第五十二条   盗窃、抢劫或者抢夺的机动车发生交通事故造成损害的,由盗窃人、抢劫人或者抢夺人承担赔偿责任。保险公司在机动车强制保险责任限额范围内垫付抢救费用的,有权向交通事故责任人追偿。
        Article 52     For any damage arising from a traffic accident caused by a stolen, robbed or hijacked motor vehicle, the person that stole, robbed or hijacked the said motor vehicle shall be liable for compensation. The insurance company that pays rescue fees in advance within the limits of compulsory motor vehicle insurance liability shall be entitled to seek reimbursement from the party culpable of the accident.

         第五十三条   机动车驾驶人发生交通事故后逃逸,该机动车参加强制保险的,由保险公司在机动车强制保险责任限额范围内予以赔偿;机动车不明或者该机动车未参加强制保险,需要支付被侵权人人身伤亡的抢救、丧葬等费用的,由道路交通事故社会救助基金垫付。道路交通事故社会救助基金垫付后,其管理机构有权向交通事故责任人追偿。
        Article 53     If the driver of a motor vehicle flees the scene after a traffic accident and the said vehicle is under compulsory insurance, the insurance company shall make compensation within the limits of compulsory motor vehicle insurance liability. If the said vehicle is unknown or if it is not under compulsory insurance, the social assistance fund for road traffic accidents shall be used to pay in advance for necessary expenses, including, inter alia, emergency rescue expenses and funeral expenses for victims who are injured or killed, and the management organization of the said fund shall be entitled to seek reimbursement from the party culpable of the accident.

      第七章  医疗损害责任
    Chapter VII Medical Damage Liability 

        第五十四条   患者在诊疗活动中受到损害,医疗机构及其医务人员有过错的,由医疗机构承担赔偿责任。
        Article 54     If a medical institution or its medical personnel are at fault for damage inflicted on a patient during the course of diagnosis and treatment, the medical institution shall be liable for compensation.

         第五十五条   医务人员在诊疗活动中应当向患者说明病情和医疗措施。需要实施手术、特殊检查、特殊治疗的,医务人员应当及时向患者说明医疗风险、替代医疗方案等情况,并取得其书面同意;不宜向患者说明的,应当向患者的近亲属说明,并取得其书面同意。
        医务人员未尽到前款义务,造成患者损害的,医疗机构应当承担赔偿责任。
        Article 55     Medical personnel shall explain to the patients in the course of diagnosis and treatment their conditions and the medical measures. If surgery, special examination or special treatment is required, medical personnel shall explain to their patients, inter alia, the medical risks and alternative treatment in a timely manner and obtain their written consents. If it is inadvisable to explain the same to the patients, medical persons shall do so with the immediate relatives of the patients and obtain their written consents.
    If a medical person fails to fulfill his or her obligations stated in the preceding paragraph and causes damage to his or her patient, the medical institution shall be liable for compensation.
     

        第五十六条   因抢救生命垂危的患者等紧急情况,不能取得患者或者其近亲属意见的,经医疗机构负责人或者授权的负责人批准,可以立即实施相应的医疗措施。
        Article 56     If the opinion of a patient or his or her immediate relatives cannot be consulted due to an emergency, including, inter alia, the resuscitation of patients in critical condition, the appropriate medical treatment may be administered immediately upon the approval of the person in charge or authorized person in charge of the medical institution.

         第五十七条   医务人员在诊疗活动中未尽到与当时的医疗水平相应的诊疗义务,造成患者损害的,医疗机构应当承担赔偿责任。
        Article 57    If a medical person fails to fulfill duty of diagnosis and treatment against prevailing medical standards and causes damage to patients, the medical institution shall be liable for compensation.
      

        第五十八条   患者有损害,因下列情形之一的,推定医疗机构有过错:
        (一)违反法律、行政法规、规章以及其他有关诊疗规范的规定;
        (二)隐匿或者拒绝提供与纠纷有关的病历资料;
        (三)伪造、篡改或者销毁病历资料。
        Article 58    The medical institution shall be presumed to be at fault if damage is inflicted on patients under any of the following circumstances:
    (1) Violation of the provisions of laws, administrative regulations, rules, etc., relating to diagnostic and treatment practices;
    (2) Concealment of or refusal to provide medical records related to the dispute; and
    (3) Forgery, falsification or destruction of medical records.
     

        第五十九条   因药品、消毒药剂、医疗器械的缺陷,或者输入不合格的血液造成患者损害的,患者可以向生产者或者血液提供机构请求赔偿,也可以向医疗机构请求赔偿。患者向医疗机构请求赔偿的,医疗机构赔偿后,有权向负有责任的生产者或者血液提供机构追偿。
        Article 59   If a patient suffers damage due to defective drugs, disinfectants and medical devices or transfusion of blood that does not meet the standards, he or she may seek compensation from the manufacturer or blood-supplying organization as well as from the medical institution. If the said patient seeks compensation from the medical institution, the medical institution is entitled to, after compensation, claim reimbursement from the manufacturer or blood-supplying organization liable for the damage.

         第六十条   患者有损害,因下列情形之一的,医疗机构不承担赔偿责任:
        (一)患者或者其近亲属不配合医疗机构进行符合诊疗规范的诊疗;
        (二)医务人员在抢救生命垂危的患者等紧急情况下已经尽到合理诊疗义务;
        (三)限于当时的医疗水平难以诊疗。
        前款第一项情形中,医疗机构及其医务人员也有过错的,应当承担相应的赔偿责任。
         Article 60   A medical institution shall not be liable for compensation under any of the following circumstances involving damages to the patient:
    (1) The patient or his or her immediate relatives refuses to cooperate with the medical institution in diagnosis and treatment that comply with the diagnostic and treatment practices;
    (2) The medical personnel have exercised reasonable duty of diagnosis and treatment in emergencies, including, inter alia, the resuscitation of patients who is approaching death; and
    (3) Difficulty in diagnosis and treatment given the limitation of prevailing medical standards. 
   In the circumstance specified in Item (1) of the preceding paragraph, if the medical institution and its medical personnel are also at fault, the medical institution shall bear the corresponding compensation liability.
     

        第六十一条   医疗机构及其医务人员应当按照规定填写并妥善保管住院志、医嘱单、检验报告、手术及麻醉记录、病理资料、护理记录、医疗费用等病历资料。
        患者要求查阅、复制前款规定的病历资料的,医疗机构应当提供。
        Article 61   Medical institutions and their medical personnel shall duly fill in and ensure the safekeeping of hospitalization records, doctors' instructions, examination reports, surgery and anesthesia records, pathological information, nursing records, medical fees and other medical records according to regulations. 
   Medical institutions shall accede to the requests of their patients to access and duplicate the medical records specified in the preceding paragraph.
     

        第六十二条   医疗机构及其医务人员应当对患者的隐私保密。泄露患者隐私或者未经患者同意公开其病历资料,造成患者损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 62    Medical institutions and their medical personnel shall ensure the privacy and confidentiality of their patients, and they shall bear tort liability if divulging their patients' privacy or medical records without the patients' consent and cause damage to the patients.

         第六十三条   医疗机构及其医务人员不得违反诊疗规范实施不必要的检查。
        Article 63    Medical institutions and their medical personnel shall not engage in unnecessary check-ups in violation of the diagnostic and treatment practices.

         第六十四条   医疗机构及其医务人员的合法权益受法律保护。干扰医疗秩序,妨害医务人员工作、生活的,应当依法承担法律责任。
        Article 64   The legal rights and interests of medical institutions and their medical personnel are protected by law. Legal liability shall be borne for interference with the medical order and work or lives of medical personnel.

      第八章  环境污染责任
    Chapter VIII Environmental Pollution Liability 

        第六十五条   因污染环境造成损害的,污染者应当承担侵权责任。
         Article 65    For damages caused by pollution of environment, the polluter shall bear tort liability.

         第六十六条   因污染环境发生纠纷,污染者应当就法律规定的不承担责任或者减轻责任的情形及其行为与损害之间不存在因果关系承担举证责任。
        Article 66   For disputes arising from pollution of environment, polluters shall bear the burden of proof on non-liability or mitigation of liability according to law and the non-existence of causal relationship between their acts and the damage.

         第六十七条   两个以上污染者污染环境,污染者承担责任的大小,根据污染物的种类、排放量等因素确定。
        Article 67    If the environment is polluted by two or more persons, the degree of liability shall be determined by factors including, inter alia, pollutant types and emission amount.

         第六十八条   因第三人的过错污染环境造成损害的,被侵权人可以向污染者请求赔偿,也可以向第三人请求赔偿。污染者赔偿后,有权向第三人追偿。
        Article 68   For damages caused by environmental pollution through the fault of a third party, the infringee may seek compensation from either the polluter or the said third party. After making compensation, the said polluter shall be entitled to claim reimbursement from the said third party.

      第九章  高度危险责任
    Chapter IX High Risk Liability 

        第六十九条   从事高度危险作业造成他人损害的,应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 69    A person who causes damage to others by engaging in high risk operations shall bear tort liability.

         第七十条   民用核设施发生核事故造成他人损害的,民用核设施的经营者应当承担侵权责任,但能够证明损害是因战争等情形或者受害人故意造成的,不承担责任。
        Article 70    If damage is inflicted on others from the occurrence of a nuclear accident at a civilian nuclear facility, the operator of the said facility shall bear tort liability unless it can prove that the damage arises from circumstances such as war or that it is intentionally caused by the victim.

         第七十一条   民用航空器造成他人损害的,民用航空器的经营者应当承担侵权责任,但能够证明损害是因受害人故意造成的,不承担责任。
        Article 71    If a civilian aircraft causes damage to others, the operator of the said aircraft shall bear tort liability unless the damage is intentionally caused by the victim.

         第七十二条   占有或者使用易燃、易爆、剧毒、放射性等高度危险物造成他人损害的,占有人或者使用人应当承担侵权责任,但能够证明损害是因受害人故意或者不可抗力造成的,不承担责任。被侵权人对损害的发生有重大过失的,可以减轻占有人或者使用人的责任。
        Article 72    If damage to others arises from the possession or use of high risk materials, including, inter alia, flammable, explosive, poisonous and radioactive materials, the users or possessors of such materials shall bear tort liability unless they can prove that the damage is caused by the intentional act of the victim or by force majeure. If the infringee is grossly negligent with respect to the occurrence of the damage, the liability of the said person using or possessing the said materials may be diminished.

         第七十三条   从事高空、高压、地下挖掘活动或者使用高速轨道运输工具造成他人损害的,经营者应当承担侵权责任,但能够证明损害是因受害人故意或者不可抗力造成的,不承担责任。被侵权人对损害的发生有过失的,可以减轻经营者的责任。
        Article 73    If damage to others arises from high-altitude, high-pressure or underground excavation activities or the use of high-speed rail transport, the operators shall bear tort liability unless they can prove that the damage is caused by the intentional act of the victim or by force majeure. If the infringee is at fault for the occurrence of the damage, the liability of the said operator may be mitigated.

         第七十四条   遗失、抛弃高度危险物造成他人损害的,由所有人承担侵权责任。所有人将高度危险物交由他人管理的,由管理人承担侵权责任;所有人有过错的,与管理人承担连带责任。
        Article 74   If damage to others arises from the loss or abandonment of a high risk object, the owner of the said object shall bear tort liability. If the said object has been handed to a third party by the owner for management, the manager shall bear tort liability. If the owner is at fault, he or she shall bear liability jointly with the manager.

         第七十五条   非法占有高度危险物造成他人损害的,由非法占有人承担侵权责任。所有人、管理人不能证明对防止他人非法占有尽到高度注意义务的,与非法占有人承担连带责任。
        Article 75    If damage arises from the illegal possession of highly dangerous objects, the illegal possessor shall bear tort liability. If the owner and manager fail to prove that they have exercised high duty of care in preventing the illegal possession, they shall be jointly liable with the illegal possessor.

         第七十六条   未经许可进入高度危险活动区域或者高度危险物存放区域受到损害,管理人已经采取安全措施并尽到警示义务的,可以减轻或者不承担责任。
        Article 76    If damage occurs from unauthorized entry into a high-risk activity area or a storage area for high-risk materials, the liability of the manager may be diminished or no liability shall be assumed if he or she has taken safety precautions and has fulfilled his or her obligation in giving warnings.

         第七十七条   承担高度危险责任,法律规定赔偿限额的,依照其规定。
        Article 77    If there is a compensation cap according to the provisions of the law for high risk liability, such provisions shall prevail.

      第十章  饲养动物损害责任
    Chapter X Liability for Damage Caused by Domestic Animals 

        第七十八条   饲养的动物造成他人损害的,动物饲养人或者管理人应当承担侵权责任,但能够证明损害是因被侵权人故意或者重大过失造成的,可以不承担或者减轻责任。
        Article 78    If damage to others is caused by domestic animals, the keeper or manager shall bear tort liability. Their liability may be mitigated or no liability shall be assumed if it can be proven that the damage is caused by intentional act or gross negligence on the part of the infringee.

         第七十九条   违反管理规定,未对动物采取安全措施造成他人损害的,动物饲养人或者管理人应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 79    If damage to others is caused by failure to take animal safety measures in violation of management regulations, the keeper or manager shall bear tort liability.

         第八十条   禁止饲养的烈性犬等危险动物造成他人损害的,动物饲养人或者管理人应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 80    If damage to others is caused by dangerous animals such as violent dogs whose rearing is banned, the keeper or manager shall bear tort liability.

         第八十一条   动物园的动物造成他人损害的,动物园应当承担侵权责任,但能够证明尽到管理职责的,不承担责任。
        Article 81    If damage to others is caused by zoo animals, the zoo shall bear tort liability unless it can prove the fulfillment of its management responsibilities.

         第八十二条   遗弃、逃逸的动物在遗弃、逃逸期间造成他人损害的,由原动物饲养人或者管理人承担侵权责任。
        Article 82    If damage to others is caused by abandoned or escaped animals during the period of abandonment or escape, the original keeper or manager shall bear tort liability.

         第八十三条   因第三人的过错致使动物造成他人损害的,被侵权人可以向动物饲养人或者管理人请求赔偿,也可以向第三人请求赔偿。动物饲养人或者管理人赔偿后,有权向第三人追偿。
        Article 83    If damage to others is caused by an animal through the fault of a third party, the infringee may seek compensation from the keeper or manager of the said animal or from the third party. The said keeper or manager shall be entitled to seek reimbursement from the said third party upon compensation.

         第八十四条   饲养动物应当遵守法律,尊重社会公德,不得妨害他人生活。
        Article 84    The keeping of animals shall be in compliance with the law and with respect for social ethics, and shall not encroach on the lives of others

      第十一章  物件损害责任
    Chapter XI Liability for Damage Caused by Objects 

        第八十五条   建筑物、构筑物或者其他设施及其搁置物、悬挂物发生脱落、坠落造成他人损害,所有人、管理人或者使用人不能证明自己没有过错的,应当承担侵权责任。所有人、管理人或者使用人赔偿后,有其他责任人的,有权向其他责任人追偿。
        Article 85    For damages to others arising from the peeling off or falling of buildings, structures or other facilities and objects placed on or suspended from the same, the owner, manager or user shall bear tort liability if they fail to prove that they are not at fault.
    The said owner, manager or user shall be entitled to claim reimbursement from other liable parties, if any, after he or she has made compensation.

         第八十六条   建筑物、构筑物或者其他设施倒塌造成他人损害的,由建设单位与施工单位承担连带责任。建设单位、施工单位赔偿后,有其他责任人的,有权向其他责任人追偿。
        因其他责任人的原因,建筑物、构筑物或者其他设施倒塌造成他人损害的,由其他责任人承担侵权责任。
        Article 86    The developers and builders shall be jointly and severally liable for damage to others arising from the collapse of buildings, structures or other facilities. The said entities shall be entitled to claim reimbursement from other liable parties, if any, after they have made compensation.
    For damage to others arising from the collapse of buildings, structures or other facilities which are caused by other liable parties, such other parties shall bear the tort liability.

         第八十七条   从建筑物中抛掷物品或者从建筑物上坠落的物品造成他人损害,难以确定具体侵权人的,除能够证明自己不是侵权人的外,由可能加害的建筑物使用人给予补偿。
        Article 87    If damage to others is caused by objects thrown from buildings or by objects falling from buildings and the tortfeasor cannot be determined, users of the possible infringing building shall make compensation unless they can prove that they are not the tortfeasors.

         第八十八条   堆放物倒塌造成他人损害,堆放人不能证明自己没有过错的,应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 88   In the case of damage to others caused by the collapse of stacked objects, people stacking the objects shall bear tort liability if they fail to prove that they are not at fault.

         第八十九条   在公共道路上堆放、倾倒、遗撒妨碍通行的物品造成他人损害的,有关单位或者个人应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 89   In the case of damage to others caused by objects that are stacked, dumped or scattered on public roads and are obstructing passage, the relevant entity or individual shall bear tort liability.

         第九十条   因林木折断造成他人损害,林木的所有人或者管理人不能证明自己没有过错的,应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 90    In the case of damage to others caused by broken trees, the owner or manager of the said trees failing to prove that they are not at fault shall bear tort liability.

         第九十一条   在公共场所或者道路上挖坑、修缮安装地下设施等,没有设置明显标志和采取安全措施造成他人损害的,施工人应当承担侵权责任。
        窨井等地下设施造成他人损害,管理人不能证明尽到管理职责的,应当承担侵权责任。
        Article 91   If damage to others is caused by failure to set up clear signs or take safety measures, in case of excavation in public places or on roads repair or installation of underground facilities, etc., the builder shall bear tort liability.
        In the case of damage caused by underground facilities including, inter alias, cellar wells, managers shall bear tort liability if they are unable to prove their fulfillment of management responsibilities.

      第十二章  附则
    Chapter XII Supplementary Provisions 

        第九十二条   本法自2010年7月1日起施行。
        Article 92   This Law shall come into force on July 1, 2010.

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